The goal of most poultry flock owners is to reap all of the benefits from their investments of time, money and labor. An essential step in reaching this goal is to maintain a healthy and parasite-free flock of birds. The health of your flock is important regardless of whether you are maintaining a backyard flock for pleasure, raising a flock for meat and/or egg production, or breeding top quality birds for exhibition purposes.
General sanitation and cleanliness will help prevent infestations of parasites. Poultry houses should be clean and parasite-free before moving new birds in. All new birds should be checked to make sure they are parasite-free before they are brought on to your farm. It is also important to remember that wild birds and rodents can harbor and spread external parasites in your flock.
Undetected infestations by external parasites in small poultry flocks can lead to serious loss in the form of decreased egg production, decreased growth, inefficient feed conversion and mortality in severe cases. Constant monitoring of your flock, through physical examination of the external surfaces of each bird’s body, is the first step in detecting and preventing external parasites. Learning to identify and treat one of the most common pests found in small poultry flocks – mites, can prevent a minor condition from turning your flock into an unsatisfactory hobby or a less than profitable enterprise.
All poultry are susceptible to the damage caused by mites. Mites feed on blood and can cause a great amount of damage to your flock, in a short period of time, if they remain undetected. The life cycle of mites can be as short as four days and as long as two weeks from egg to maturity. Short life cycles allow for quick turnover and heavy infestations. Unlike lice, some mites can live in the environment as well as on the host. Therefore, treatments should be applied to your birds as well as their housing.
Detecting and monitoring the mite population level is an important factor for effective control. A minimum of 10 randomly selected birds should be examined for mites weekly. Infestation levels can be estimated by blowing on the bird’s feathers and counting the mites that are immediately seen. The following index can be used to estimate mite infestation levels:
- 5 mites counted = Bird may be carrying from 100 to 300 mites
- 6 mites counted = Bird may be carrying from 300 to 1,000 mites (light infestation)
- 7 mites counted = Bird may be carrying from 1,000 to 3,000 mites – small clumps of mites seen on skin and feathers (moderate infestation)
- 8 mites counted = Bird may be carrying from 3,000 to 10,000 mites – accumulation of mites on skin and feathers (moderate to heavy infestation)
- 9 mites counted = Bird may be carrying 10,000 to 32,000 or more mites – numerous large clumps of mites seen on skin and feathers; skin pocketed with scabs (heavy infestation)
Two poultry mites of concern in the United States and addressed in this article include the Northern Fowl Mite and the Chicken Mite.
Northern Fowl Mites
Northern fowl mites are the most common and are the most economically important among poultry mites. Northern fowl mites infect chickens, turkey and game birds. They also cause considerable infestations in pheasants. The northern fowl mite is a serious pest concern in all areas of the United States and throughout temperate zones of other countries. It can be mistaken for the red chicken mite, but unlike the red mite, it can be found on birds during the daytime as well as night. The northern fowl mite has been reported as being seen on many species of birds and may be carried by the English sparrow. This parasite is most commonly seen in caged layer facilities and on range turkeys.
Northern fowl mites are blood feeders causing anemia in birds that are highly infested. Anemia reduces a bird’s efficiency, production and ability to withstand and overcome other diseases. Meat birds infected with northern fowl mites will have reduced value due to blemishing by scabby areas on the skin. Infected laying flocks will experience a fall off in egg production. Infestations exceeding 200,000 mites will produce fatal conditions due to anemia and its interference with the bird’s immune response. Birds stressed by mites will lose weight, have pink combs, and their feathers are generally soiled with mite excrement. Feathers around the vent area also become soiled. Due to the tendency of mites to congregate around the vent, they can also reduce a rooster’s ability to mate successfully.
The life cycle of the northern fowl mite requires less than one week. Eggs are laid along the shafts of feathers and hatch within 24 hours. The entire life cycle is spent on the host with growth from egg to maturity completing in about four days. Infestations of northern fowl mites may dwindle during the summer months, but are more severe during winter weather.
Total control of the northern fowl mite requires the use of chemical pesticides. Mites are more resistant to pesticides than lice, so treatment may require a rotation of pesticides used. Pesticides for treating infestations of the northern fowl mite must be applied directly to the bird as a wettable powder, emulsion concentrated spray or as a dust. Effective treatment for small, floor-reared flocks can include the application of a dust – treating the bird, litter and providing dust boxes for the birds to dust bathe.
The chicken mite is a common external parasite that is most often seen in small, non-commercial poultry flocks. Chicken mites prefer chickens as their host, but can also infest turkeys, pigeons, canaries and wild birds. Human dwellings have become infected with chicken mites due to sparrows making nests beneath the eaves of a house or building. Chicken mites are also referred to as red mites, gray mites and roost mites. They are seen worldwide and are a particular problem in warmer climates. Chicken mites are most prevalent in poultry houses that contain wooden roosts.
Chicken mites feed on blood and cause birds that are heavily infested to become anemic, lethargic, and exhibit a pale comb and wattles. Feed efficiency and egg production decrease. Young chickens and brooding hens may die due to blood loss. Birds in production may refuse to lay in nests that are infested with chicken mites. All of these symptoms are good indicators that your poultry housing should be examined for mite infestation.
Chicken mites are true mites and therefore are arachnids – a member of the spider family. Chicken mites can run rapidly on the skin and feathers of a bird. They live in secluded areas of poultry housing including cracks and crevices on the roosts, walls, ceiling, and floors. Chicken mites are nocturnal feeders (night feeders) and are not usually found on birds during the day. However, hens setting on eggs may be attacked during the daytime. Infestation by chicken mites can go undetected unless birds are examined at night.
The life cycle of a chicken mite requires only 10 days from egg to maturity under favorable conditions, making many generations per year possible. Infestation of chicken mites builds during the spring, summer and fall. With the exception of heated poultry houses, chicken mites are generally inactive during the winter. In empty chicken houses, the chicken mite can remain dormant for periods of four to five months during the summer and even longer during the winter.
Properly identifying the species of mite your flock is infested with is the first step in effective control. It is very important to differentiate the chicken mite from the northern fowl mite when diagnosing the problem. Once properly identified, effective control of the chicken mite requires a thorough cleaning and disinfection of the poultry building followed by one or more applications of an approved miticide. In extreme cases, the poultry housing may have to go unused for a long period of time. In some instances, heavily infested buildings may no longer be used for housing poultry.
Treatment Of Mites In Poultry
Prevention is the best method of treatment. Many insecticides are available to help control external poultry parasites. One of the most effective broad-spectrum insecticides is permethrin. Permethrin has a significant residual activity, thus making it ideal for treating poultry housing and equipment. At reduced concentrations, permethrin can also be applied directly to the bird. Additional remedies used to treat poultry lice and mites include wood ashes and diatomaceous earth (these remedies are believed to smother lice and mites without a chemical effect). There are also new natural enzyme-containing lice and mite sprays that are non-toxic such as Poultry Protector.
When treating mite infestations, it is important to properly identify the parasite, then read and follow all directions for proper mixing instructions, application rates, and precautions for the product you choose to treat the infestation. It is illegal to use any pesticide/insecticide in any way that is inconsistent with the label. No product endorsement is intended, nor criticism of unnamed products implied.
Laura John lives with her husband, Matt, and their four children at Shady Lane Poultry Farm in Winchester, Kentucky. Laura has a BS degree in Poultry Science from Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. If you have questions about the information or products described in this article, please visit their website at www.poultrymansupply.com