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Marans Chickens: Layers of Chocolate Brown Eggs by William Morrow from the June/July, 2010 issue of Backyard Poultry

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February 7, 2013

Marans Chickens: Layers of Chocolate Brown Eggs
This striking trio of Blue Copper Marans illustrates the difficult balance one must strive for between the amount of copper on the hackles and the amount of copper/red flecking on the breast and body. If you select for cocks with no copper/red markings on the breast, he will produce daughters that are too light in copper on the hackle (pullet on left). This is not desirable. Note the pullet on the right. She has lots of copper on the hackles and in the front of her neck. She also has a small amount of copper red markings on her breast and excellent dark lacing. Photos by William Morrow unless otherwise noted.

By William Morrow

Whitmore Farm
www.whitmorefarm.com



There are many factors that influence egg color in the Marans breed including bloodline, age of hens, time of year, and diet. Photo courtesy of Kathy Baca, New York.There are many factors that influence egg color in the Marans breed including bloodline, age of hens, time of year, and diet. Photo courtesy of Kathy Baca, New York.

he same cockerel as the title photo from the front showing what the French Standard calls "parsimonious" copper/red spotting on the breast. There is a direct relationship between the amount of copper on hens' hackles and necks and the amount of copper/red flecking on the breast of males. The Black Copper and Blue Copper varieties are identical except the blue gene dilutes out the black to a gray, otherwise, it's the same genetics and breeding. Photos by William Morrow unless otherwise noted.
The same cockerel as the title photo from the front showing what the French Standard calls “parsimonious” copper/red spotting on the breast. There is a direct relationship between the amount of copper on hens’ hackles and necks and the amount of copper/red flecking on the breast of males. The Black Copper and Blue Copper varieties are identical except the blue gene dilutes out the black to a gray, otherwise, it’s the same genetics and breeding.

This is a sampling of the eggs laid by our flock for comparison. The two tan eggs on the top left are Delaware eggs, the blue/green egg in the middle is from an Ameraucana, and the white eggs are from a Leghorn. All of the dark brown eggs are from our Marans. Marans lay the largest egg of the breeds we raise. Pullet eggs average 2.05 oz (58.2 g) and meet the USDA "large" classification. Eggs from adult hens consistently hit the extra large and jumbo benchmark.
This is a sampling of the eggs laid by our flock for comparison. The two tan eggs on the top left are Delaware eggs, the blue/green egg in the middle is from an Ameraucana, and the white eggs are from a Leghorn. All of the dark brown eggs are from our Marans. Marans lay the largest egg of the breeds we raise. Pullet eggs average 2.05 oz (58.2 g) and meet the USDA “large” classification. Eggs from adult hens consistently hit the extra large and jumbo benchmark.

This Black-Tailed Buff variety is a fine example of the rectangular shape, meat type conformation and short tail associated with the Marans breed.
This Black-Tailed Buff variety is a fine example of the rectangular shape, meat type conformation and short tail associated with the Marans breed.

Marans. The breed name is synonymous with chocolate brown eggs.

History

Marans originated in the French village of Marans about 240 miles southwest of Paris or 100 miles north of Bordeaux. Marans is a port town in the Bay of Biscay. A steady supply of trade ships over the centuries brought with them new breeds of poultry which were bred with the local chickens, resulting in the Marans varieties we have today. Pronunciation of the breed name is all over the place. If you look at the French language rules, the "s" at the end is silent. Marans is pronounced Muh-ran. Probably the most difficult thing for Americans to do is roll the "r". It was my downfall in high school foreign language class. Marans are very popular in England as well as France. Ian Fleming, the creator of the James Bond novels, made Marans eggs Agent 007′s favorite, sealing the egg’s elite status with the British.

Though increasing in numbers, Marans are still considered rare in the U.S. Original imports were mostly from the U.K. and of the Cuckoo variety. The U.K. standard calls for clean shanks, while the French standard calls for sparsely feathered shanks. This difference in feathered versus non-feathered shanks has proven quite controversial among breeders working to get the breed accepted into the American Poultry Association Standards of Perfection. Cuckoo is still the most common variety in the U.S., but thanks to more recent imports and lots of hard work by dedicated breeders, many more color varieties are now available. These include Silver Cuckoo, Gold Cuckoo, Black Copper (Brown Red), Blue Copper, Splash Copper, Wheaten, Black Tailed Buff, White, Black, Blue, Splash, Birchen (Silver Black) and Columbian. All of these except the Blue Copper, Splash Copper, Blue and Splash varieties are part of the official French standard. Although, the French Marans Club acknowledges that the Blue color has existed in Marans since its origin. Marans are a heavy, dual purpose breed raised for both meat and eggs. Bantam Marans exist, but they are very rare.

Personality

Of all the different breeds of chickens I’ve raised, Marans are the cleanest and most docile. They rarely soil their nest boxes. I have never had an aggressive Marans rooster, and I grow out several hundred each year to select my breeders. This more passive disposition spills over into other aspects of behavior as well. With Marans I found you need to run a higher ratio of cocks to hens to keep your fertility up. I run 1 cock for every 6-8 hens versus 1 cock for every 10-12 hens for my other breeds. I have also noticed that when I integrate a batch of younger birds into the main breeder flock at 5 months of age, they don’t get bullied around as much by the adults. They are also the first birds to go in at dusk. Now, this probably all sounds very nice and positive, but in general, passive behavior is not associated with highly productive birds. If you think about Leghorns or Production Reds, you think of flighty, nervous, high strung birds that are the last ones to retire to the roost when dusk approaches. It is well known that your most productive layers are going to be your more assertive, active birds.

A Cuckoo Marans cockerel (left), compared to a Cuckoo Marans pullet with clean shanks and English bloodline. Notice how much darker the pullet is compared to the cockerel. The Cuckoo pattern allows you to sex the chicks at birth, a distinct advantage over the other color varieties. This is due to the Cuckoo pattern gene being sex linked. The males have two copies of the gene, the females only have one copy.

The Famous Egg

There was a time that Marans in France were known for 200 eggs a year. That hasn’t been our experience here in the U.S. I hope to improve this with continued selection. As with most birds developed in the first half of the 20th century, the Marans are a dual purpose, heavy breed. This meat type conformation will naturally result in a lower lay rate. To select for heavy egg production, you will lose the heavy type. Some also say that by selecting for the darkest egg color, you are selecting for hens that pass the eggs more slowly through the oviduct resulting in hens with a lower lay rate. The logic being the longer it takes for the egg to pass; the more coats of brown/red color are applied. The brown/red colors are pigments called porphyrins. Porphyrins are derived from hemoglobin in the blood. As you recall from your high school biology, iron is what gives blood its red color. If a Marans egg is exposed to light for a prolonged period of time, the red pigments oxidize and turn dark brown. This is a trick that some less scrupulous breeders use to photograph very dark eggs for sale. Never trust a picture of a Marans egg. Egg photographs are too easily faked or altered. Better to rely on the reputation of a breeder. I’ve also noticed that eggs just don’t photograph well. I’ve photographed our eggs on numerous occasions and the pictures never look as good as the eggs do in person.

This Splash Copper Marans pullet shows how having two copies of the blue gene dilutes out the copper markings as well.
This Splash Copper Marans pullet shows how having two copies of the blue gene dilutes out the copper markings as well.

The Splash Copper Marans rooster has two copies of the blue dilution gene making it quite useful for breeding. When mated to a Black Copper you get 100% Blue Copper offspring.
The Splash Copper Marans rooster has two copies of the blue dilution gene making it quite useful for breeding. When mated to a Black Copper you get 100% Blue Copper offspring.

This Black Marans Cockerel, owned by Kathleen LaDue, is superior in type, degree of shank feathering, and color, but has a small side sprig on his comb. When developing new varieties and bloodlines in rare breeds, simple faults like this can be overcome with strategic breeding if the bird excels in other desirable traits.
This Black Marans Cockerel, owned by Kathleen LaDue, is superior in type, degree of shank feathering, and color, but has a small side sprig on his comb. When developing new varieties and bloodlines in rare breeds, simple faults like this can be overcome with strategic breeding if the bird excels in other desirable traits.

When you breed a Black Copper Marans cock and Blue Copper hen you will get 50% Black Copper offspring and 50% Blue Copper offspring. Both varieties are pure. There is no such thing as a black carrier of the blue dilution gene in chickens. Note the black wing triangle on the male, this is an important distinction between the brown-red and black breasted-red color genes. Black Copper (Brown Red) males should have a solid black wing triangle.
When you breed a Black Copper Marans cock and Blue Copper hen you will get 50% Black Copper offspring and 50% Blue Copper offspring. Both varieties are pure. There is no such thing as a black carrier of the blue dilution gene in chickens. Note the black wing triangle on the male, this is an important distinction between the brown-red and black breasted-red color genes. Black Copper (Brown Red) males should have a solid black wing triangle.

This Blue Marans pullet from Kathleen LaDue shows promising lacing, a difficult trait to get right.  The random tan marks are from dust bathing in Maryland's red clay soil.  The reddish/bay eye color doesn't develop until adulthood.
This Blue Marans pullet from Kathleen LaDue shows promising lacing, a difficult trait to get right. The random tan marks are from dust bathing in Maryland’s red clay soil. The reddish/bay eye color doesn’t develop until adulthood.

Marans egg color is a very controversial and often misunderstood topic. Egg color does vary by individual bird, by the time of the year, diet, health and management (free range on green pasture vs. confinement). Generally speaking, hens coming on line in the spring will lay the darkest eggs. Egg color then fades as the laying season progresses into late summer. Then, when she comes back on line after her winter molt and rest, the dark egg color returns and the cycle starts all over again. Egg color can be an even brown, or spotted and stippled with varying shades of brown. Some breeders only hatch out the even brown color. We found that our customers like the uniqueness of the spotted eggs. So, we hatch out both the spotted and even types of dark brown eggs to perpetuate those traits in our bloodlines. It is unrealistic to expect every bird in your flock to lay a dark egg all year long. Egg color does not work like that. Brown egg color is controlled by at least 14 genes and is not well understood. If it were as simple as only hatching the dark eggs, everyone would have a good line within one generation. The French Marans Club has developed an official egg color chart with a 1-9 color scale. The French standard specifies that a hen must lay at least a 4 to be considered a Marans. You can view the chart on their website.

Breeding

We raise Black Copper Marans and Blue Copper Marans. As with any Blue variety of chicken, you will also get Splash as a by-product of breeding. So, we also have Splash Copper Marans which can be very useful in your breeding program. Most of the stock in the U.S. came from a handful of bloodlines, so they tend to share common faults. Faults to look out for with any of these varieties when selecting your best for breeding are:

  • Yellow on shanks or bottom of feet (often appears as willow shanks with yellow foot pads)
  • White on ear lobes
  • Black eyes (this is recessive and easily corrected)
  • Side sprigs
  • Brown, red or copper on body of hen (other than head, neck & hackles)
  • Excessive brown, red or copper on breast of male
  • Excessive tail length on males
  • Excessive feathering on shanks and toes
  • Clean shanks
  • Undersized/underweight (males less than 8.0 lbs, females less than 7.0 lbs)
  • Hens that lay light colored eggs

The Future of the Breed

2009 was an exciting year for Marans. The breed had its first qualifying meet at the American Poultry Association’s (APA) annual show in Belvidere, Illinois this past September. There were 82 birds shown by 14 exhibitors. It was a very good turnout. The latest and most well organized breed club to date is the Marans Chicken Club USA. They helped organized the National Qualifying Meet. The qualifying meet was for the Black Copper variety. You can find a copy of the proposed APA standard on their website: www.maransusa.org. The Black Copper Marans is the most common variety in France. It is also the most well developed and has the best egg color. It is used by more experienced breeders to improve and develop the other varieties. This should be done with a very good understanding of color genetics and accompanied by meticulous record keeping. Otherwise you can mess up a good bloodline rather easily.

The then APA president, Dave Anderson, judged the Marans Qualifying Meet accompanied by the Standard Revision Committee. The APA was impressed with the quality of the hens but acknowledged that the cocks were not as consistent in type as they would like. Many of the birds were young. In a letter to the Marans Chicken Club USA, Dave Anderson acknowledged that the Black Copper Marans were on the borderline of being accepted by the APA, but in the end, the APA decided to leave the application open/active and allow a second qualifying meet in 2010. This means we need more breeders working with and showing Marans. So, if you have any room in your pens, Marans could be the breed for you. You and James Bond can have something in common!

Web sites for those interested in learning more about Marans:

William Morrow raises Marans and other rare breeds of poultry at Whitmore Farm in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Visit www.whitmorefarm.com.

I am a digital project manager with Swift Digital. I started at Swift in June 2007 and joined the Backyard Poultry Magazine team in 2012. I hold a master's degree in interactive journalism from the Un...